CONCYTEC

 

CONCYTEC

Coronavirus COVID-19
Publicaciones seleccionadas
por el CONCYTEC
ABSTRACT
During respiratory viral infection, face masks are thought to prevent transmission (1). Whether face masks worn by patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevent contamination of the environment is uncertain (2, 3). A previous study reported that surgical masks and N95 masks were equally effective in preventing the dissemination of influenza virus (4), so surgical masks might help prevent transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS–CoV-2). However, the SARS–CoV-2 pandemic has contributed to shortages of both N95 and surgical masks, and cotton masks have gained interest as a substitute.
ABSTRACT
This article summarizes the likely benefits of melatonin in the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has become a pandemic with tens of thousands of infected patients. Based on clinical features, pathology, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory disorder induced by either highly homogenous coronaviruses or other pathogens, the evidence suggests that excessive inflammation, oxidation, and an exaggerated immune response very likely contribute to COVID-19 pathology. This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and often death. Melatonin, a well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecule, is protective against ALI/ARDS caused by viral and other pathogens. Melatonin is effective in critical care patients by reducing vessel permeability, anxiety, sedation use, and improving sleeping quality, which might also be beneficial for better clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Notably, melatonin has a high safety profile. There is significant data showing that melatonin limits virus-related diseases and would also likely be beneficial in COVID-19 patients. Additional experiments and clinical studies are required to confirm this speculation.
ABSTRACT
Viroporins are virus encoded proteins that alter membrane permeability and can trigger subsequent cellular signals. Oligomerization of viroporin subunits results in formation of a hydrophilic pore which facilitates ion transport across host cell membranes. These viral channel proteins may be involved in different stages of the virus infection cycle. Inflammasomes are large multimolecular complexes best recognized for their ability to control activation of caspase-1, which in turn regulates the maturation of interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) and interleukin 18 (IL-18). IL-1β was originally identified as a pro-inflammatory cytokine able to induce both local and systemic inflammation and a febrile reaction in response to infection or injury. Excessive production of IL-1β is associated with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Microbial derivatives, bacterial pore-forming toxins, extracellular ATP and other pathogen-associated molecular patterns trigger activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. Recent studies have reported that viroporin activity is capable of inducing inflammasome activity and production of IL-1β, where NLRP3 is shown to be regulated by fluxes of K+, H+ and Ca2+ in addition to reactive oxygen species, autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the key findings on viroporin activity with special emphasis on their role in virus immunity and as possible activators of inflammasomes.
 

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