CONCYTEC

 

CONCYTEC

Coronavirus COVID-19
Publicaciones seleccionadas
por el CONCYTEC
ABSTRACT
The emergence of the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China has caused a worldwide epidemic of respiratory disease (COVID-19). Vaccines and targeted therapeutics for treatment of this disease are currently lacking. Here we report a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 (and SARS-CoV) in cell culture. This cross-neutralizing antibody targets a communal epitope on these viruses and may offer potential for prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
ABSTRACT
To date, no vaccines or effective drugs have been approved to prevent or treat COVID-19 and the current standard care relies on supportive treatments. Therefore, based on the fast and global spread of the virus, urgent investigations are warranted in order to develop preventive and therapeutic drugs. In this regard, treatments addressing the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection have become a major focus. Notably, while a rapid and well-coordinated immune response represents the first line of defense against viral infection, excessive inflammatory innate response and impaired adaptive host immune defense may lead to tissue damage both at the site of virus entry and at systemic level. Several studies highlight relevant changes occurring both in innate and adaptive immune system in COVID-19 patients. In particular, the massive cytokine and chemokine release, the so-called “cytokine storm”, clearly reflects a widespread uncontrolled dysregulation of the host immune defense. Although the prospective of counteracting cytokine storm is compelling, a major limitation relies on the limited understanding of the immune signaling pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The identification of signaling pathways altered during viral infections may help to unravel the most relevant molecular cascades implicated in biological processes mediating viral infections and to unveil key molecular players that may be targeted. Thus, given the key role of the immune system in COVID-19, a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the immune dysregulation might give us clues for the clinical management of the severe cases and for preventing the transition from mild to severe stages.
ABSTRACT
The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in more than 250 countries has become a serious threat to the health of people around the world. Human-to-human transmission of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs most often when people are in the incubation stage of the disease or are carriers and have no symptoms. Therefore, in this study, was discussed the role of environmental factors and conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind speed as well as food, water and sewage, air, insects, inanimate surfaces, and hands in COVID-19 transmission. The results of studies on the stability of the SARS-CoV-2 on different levels showed that the resistance of this virus on smooth surfaces was higher than others. Temperature increase and sunlight can facilitate the destruction of SARS-COV-2 and the stability of it on surfaces. When the minimum ambient air temperature increases by 1 °C, the cumulative number of cases decreases by 0.86%. According to the latest evidence, the presence of coronavirus in the sewer has been confirmed, but there is no evidence that it is transmitted through sewage or contaminated drinking water. Also, SARS-COV-2 transmission through food, food packages, and food handlers has not been identified as a risk factor for the disease. According to the latest studies, the possibility of transmitting SARS-COV-2 bioaerosol through the air has been reported in the internal environment of ophthalmology. The results additionally show that infectious bio-aerosols can move up to 6 feet. There have been no reports of SARS-COV-2 transmission by blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes.
 

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