CONCYTEC

 

CONCYTEC

Coronavirus COVID-19
Publicaciones seleccionadas
por el CONCYTEC
ABSTRACT
Infection with the coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), stimulates an immune response which can serve as a marker for current or past exposure to this pathogen, and possibly for resistance to re-infection. This response to COVID-19 can be monitored based on the production of antibodies and, thus, serologic tests have become available for diagnostic purposes. Despite progress in this area, concerns have been raised that too many of the commercially available serologic detection systems are not completely reliable. To address this issue, Western blots should be considered for confirming a positive or borderline-positive result from a screening test, such as an ELISA. An additional benefit of Western blots would be to identify antigens that could form the basis for developing a vaccine. Little is known about the cell-mediated immune response against COVID-19. One way to address this would be to use skin testing to measure the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in patients recovering from COVID-19.
ABSTRACT
Epidemic modelling studies predict that physical distancing is critical in containing COVID-19. However, few empirical studies have validated this finding. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of different physical distancing measures in controlling viral transmission. Methods: We identified three distinct physical distancing measures with varying intensity and implemented at different times—international travel controls, restrictions on mass gatherings, and lockdown-type measures—based on the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. We also estimated the time-varying reproduction number (Rt) for 142 countries and tracked Rt temporally for two weeks following the 100th reported case in each country. We regressed Rt on the physical distancing measures and other control variables (income, population density, age structure, and temperature) and performed several robustness checks to validate our findings. Findings: Complete travel bans and all forms of lockdown-type measures have been effective in reducing average Rt over the 14 days following the 100th case. Recommended stay-at-home advisories and partial lockdowns are as effective as complete lockdowns in outbreak control. However, these measures have to be implemented early to be effective. Based on the observed median timing across countries worldwide, lockdown-type measures are considered early if they were instituted about two weeks before the 100th case and travel bans a week before detection of the first case.
ABSTRACT
The current COVID-19 pandemic has urged the scientific community internationally to find answers in terms of therapeutics and vaccines to control SARS-CoV-2. Published investigation mostly on SARS-CoV and to extent on MERS has taught lessons to vaccination strategies to this novel coronavirus. This is attributed to the fact that SARS-CoV-2 uses the same receptor as SARS-CoV on host cell i.e. human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (hACE2) and is approximately 79% similar genetically to SARS-CoV. Though the efforts on COVID-19 vaccines started very early, initially in China, as soon as the outbreak of novel coronavirus erupted and then world-over as the disease was declared a pandemic by WHO. But we will not be having an effective COVID-19 vaccine before September, 2020 as per very optimistic estimates. This is because a successful COVID-19 vaccine will require a cautious validation of efficacy and adverse reactivity as the target vaccinee population include high-risk individuals over the age of 60, particularly those with chronic co-morbid conditions, frontline healthcare workers and those involved in essentials industries. Various platforms for vaccine development are available namely: virus vectored vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, genetic vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization which are under evaluations for SARS-CoV-2, with each having discrete benefits and hindrances. The COVID-19 pandemic which probably is the most devastating one in the last 100 years after Spanish flu mandates the speedy evaluation of the multiple approaches for competence to elicit protective immunity and safety to curtail unwanted immune-potentiation which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this virus. This review is aimed at providing an overview of the efforts dedicated to an effective vaccine for this novel coronavirus which has crippled the world in terms of economy, human health and life.
 

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